Solar potential under water stress
Approximately 90% of concentrated solar power (CSP) resources and 80% of solar PV resources in India are in areas experiencing high water stress, which can severely restrict deployment unless water requirements are minimized. Water stress areas were identified using the World Resources Institute's data.
Potential for co-locating solar PV and wind plants
At least 110 GW of wind and 360 GW of solar PV capacity can be co-located in India, which together could meet 35% of electricity demand in 2030. Co-locating wind and solar plants reduces impact on land-use and depending on the generation profiles, results in better transmission capacity utilization.
Levelized cost of energy for generation, transmission, and road
Solar PV resource supply curve is relatively flat suggesting similar resource quality across the region. In contrast, the wind resource supply curve is sloping, which suggests significant heterogeneity in resource quality across the region. Capital costs are derived from solar and wind auction prices in 2017-2018. Land use factor assumed for wind is 2.25 MW/km2 and for solar PV is 7.5 MW/km2. Vertical line represents 30% of India's 2030 demand for electricity.
Wind on Agricultural and Non-agricultural Land
More than 80% of wind resources lie on agricultural lands where dual land use strategies could encourage wind development and avoid loss of agriculturally productive land. Agricultural land was identified using India's National Remote Sensing Centre's data.